Category Archives: Push-Ups


Push-ups are like the Rodney Dangerfield of the fitness community – they get no respect.
Often deemed a waste of time, or worse, “too easy,” push-ups are generally an after-thought with regards to exercise selection. I mean, who has time to do push-ups after four sets of bench presses, seven sets of incline presses, and 14 sets of decline presses? Dude, everyone knows you have to hit all the angles!
What’s more, if you really want to blast the pecs, you can’t forget dumbbell flies, cable flies, and the pec dec!!11!1
Sarcasm aside, it’s readily apparent that push-ups aren’t quite as “sexy” as their bench press counterparts, and aren’t considered a high priority for most trainees when it comes to getting their pecification on.
Heck, they’re not even in the same stratosphere as the bench press.  I mean, when was the last time you walked into your gym and saw someone rocking some legit push-ups?  Let alone perform them correctly, or with any external load?
Yeah, I thought so.  You’re more apt to see a Real Housewife win a Pulitzer.
Nevertheless, if I were to make a top five list of exercises that give you the most bang-for-your-training-buck, push-ups would easily make an appearance. For starters, most people can’t do them correctly, let alone do them for reps, so that alone means something.
Ironically, people have a tendency to do what’s easy and what they’re good at.  Push-ups, for all intents and purposes, are considered “easy” by most standards…
….but not a lot of people are good at them.
Most of the time you see the following: for the visual learners in the crowd, refer to the picture to the right.
1.  Head juts down
2. Excessive lumbar curve
3. No scapular retraction (or protraction)
4. Abs “sag” (rectus abdomimus picks up the slack for woefully weak external obliques)
5. Limited range of motion (it looks more like an epileptic seizure than a push-up)
While I’m not going to break it down joint by joint and cue by cue, here are some standard things to focus on when trying to perform a proper push-up:
  • Keep chin tucked  – don’t poke it towards the ground
  • Abs should stay tight or braced (sometimes I’ll gently tap the stomach to help the trainee engage their core)
  • Squeeze the glutes (provides more posterior pelvic tilt and keeps people out of lumbar extension)
  • Hands/elbows should be directly underneath the shoulders.
  • Likewise, hands should be around shoulder width apart
  • Knees should be locked and legs in a straight line.
  • The backside should make a straight line.  Here, I LOVE using a PVC pipe to place on people’s backs so as to teach them what a neutral spine should feel like. There should be three points of contact – the back of the head, in between the shoulder blades, and the sacrum*** Photo courtesy of elitefitblog.
  • Elbows should NOT flare out during the set.  Instead, they should stay tight to the body, or at a 45 degree angle.
  • Chest touches floor on every rep
NOTE:  For those interested, you can check out THIS post where I discuss some push-up variations for women (and men) who can’t yet perform a standard push-up from the floor.
Moving on (because I don’t want to make this a “how to” post), compared to the bench press, push-ups are a closed chain exercise, which offers a gulf of advantages, particularly with regards to scapular kinematics and overall shoulder health.
In short, when you’re lying on your back performing a bench press, your shoulder blades aren’t able to move – they’re stuck in place.
Conversely, with a push-up, the scapulae are now able to move more freely, which has huge dividends towards overall shoulder health.
It’s not uncommon for someone to walk into the facility complaining of debilitating shoulder pain (in no small part to the amount of benching they do), only to realize that they can perform push-ups pain free.
Thirdly, push-ups offer a lot of variety. Whether I’m working with an elite athlete, a newbie, or with someone who has a bum shoulder, push-ups offer me a lot of leeway, and I can make them as easy (or challenging) as I want. Literally, the options are endless.
Lastly, and arguably most important of all, from a anterior-posterior perspective, push-ups are a fantastic way to train the core in a more functional manner, as you have to learn to “engage” all the stabilizers in the lumbo-pelvic-hip area to achieve better pelvic alignment.
With this established, the prime movers now appear stronger because the stabilizers are doing their job and force is more easily transferred.
Suffice it to say, I really feel that push-ups should be a staple in everyone’s programming, and it’s unfortunate that they’re often dismissed altogether.
That said, while the first step is to make sure that everyone can perform a push-up correctly (see points above), lets be honest, they can be about as exciting as watching paint dry. Sometimes we need to kick it up a notch, and with that in mind…’s not uncommon for us to make them more challenging by adding things like bands, chains, etc.
When those aren’t an option, here are some other variations I like:

T-Push-Ups (with DBs)

The first point to consider is that DBs aren’t necessarily mandatory here.  For some, just using body weight alone will be challenging enough.
Even so, the key thing here is to make sure that the body is locked into place.  A HYYYYYOOOOOGE mistake I see is when trainees tend to rotate with their lumbar spine first and then with their upper torso.
Instead, what should happen is that the rib cage should be locked into place with the lower back so that the entire body moves in unison.
From there, I generally shoot for anywhere from 4-5 reps/PER SIDE.

1-Arm Bodysaw Push-Up

This is definitely one of the more advanced push-up variations we implement at Cressey Performance, but one that’s definitely popular amongst our athletes and clients.
Obviously, having access to a slideboard is useful, but not mandatory:  purchasing a ValSlide or even a pair of those furniture glider thingamajigs would be advantageous (not to mention cheaper).
Here, all of the same rules apply with regards to push-up technique, but with the addition of the slideboard, there’s a definite increased challenge on core stability (especially with the increased range of motion).  Additionally, there’s a bit of a unilateral component which is unique and something I feel is important to consider.
Again, much like the t-push variation above, I like to implement sets of 5-6 reps per side.

Push-Up Kickthrough

Admittedly this is a variation that I’ll only typically use as part of a metabolic circuit, but it’s still kind of badass (despite the Katy Perry playing in the background).
The premise is pretty standard – perform a push-up, and then bring the contra-lateral knee towards the opposite elbow – maintaining a neutral spine as best you can, of course.
I prefer to do this version for time (20-30s) as part of a circuit, but you can certainly shoot for a standard # of reps per side, too.
And that’s it.  While I could easily sit here and plow through 20 more variations, those are just a few (hopefully) new push-up variations you can start to incorporate today.  Just so we’re clear, though, I still feel it’s imperative that people learn to do REGULAR push-ups correctly.  Once that’s in the bag, the options are endless.


>The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!


The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!

The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!

Push-ups get no respect.
While other bodyweight exercises like chin-ups and dips boast devoted fans from all corners of the industry, the lowly push-up is the veritable red-headed step-child of the strength and conditioning world.
At the risk of going all Freudian, perhaps it has something to do with childhood?
Come across the word “push-up” in an otherwise blasé strength training program and suddenly you’re a pimple-faced 7th grader again, desperately trying to avoid attention while an overly-caffeinated Mr. Hartmann doles out punishing sets of push-ups for the slightest of offences.

So rather than re-live that humiliation every time we strap on our Chucks, we label the push-up as “biomechanically inferior,” or a “pussy exercise,” and strike it from our programs, and our psyche.
But we’re here to tell you that’s just not fair, and there’s much ado about the push-up that warrants your attention.
For example, if they’re such a walk in the park, ever wonder why most novices do what they do when first attempting push-ups?
Why do rookies flare their elbows and place their hands high and wide? Why do they tend to sag in the core region, or limit the range of motion and perform “partial reps?”
And why do men just seem to “catch on” much quicker than women?
In this article, we’re going to review the literature pertinent to push-ups, discuss common technique errors, offer some corrective exercises to assist in proper push-up performance, and provide a push-up progression list.

Literature Summary

Despite the notable absence of glutes and ass references, this is still a Bret Contreras co-production, which means one thing: research. Here’s a brief summary of just some of what the literature says about push-ups.
The abdominal muscles are king when it comes to spinal stability during push-ups. The rectus abdominis is the primary stabilizer for preventing hip sagging, while the obliques do most of the work to prevent lateral shifting and twisting. The transversus abdominis, multifidus, and erector spinae are only minimal contributors to spinal stability during the push-up exercise.
Push-ups are also about arms and chest, with 73-109% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the triceps, and 95-105% MVC of the pec major. The back is also involved, with serratus anterior as the top back muscle with 75% MVC compared to 27% for the mid traps and 36% for the lower traps.
Hand position plays an important role. A narrow base push-up position significantly increases stress on the elbow joint, but also involves higher muscle activation in the triceps and pecs. Internally rotated hand positions were also shown to produce greater and potentially injurious forces on the elbow joints.
Depending on your goal, you’ll want to do different push-up progressions. Push-ups with alternating hands on a ball provided the greatest rectus abdominis and oblique challenge; one arm push-ups hit the lats, anterior deltoid, and erector spinae the hardest; and clapping push-ups were the toughest for the pec major, triceps, and biceps.
Cogley et al. (2005) found that narrow base push-ups led to higher EMG values in the triceps brachii and pectoralis major than wide base push-ups. Popular belief indicates that wide base push-ups activate more pec fibers, but this study showed otherwise.
An et al. (1992) found that peak axial forces on the elbow joint during push-ups averaged around 45% of bodyweight. This increases to 75% in the case of narrow base push-ups. This means that narrow base push-ups (with your hands closer together) increases stress on the elbow joint.
Beach et al. (2008) showed that suspended push-ups activated more core musculature than regular push-ups. Based on this finding you can use blast straps or a TRX to increase the efficacy of the push-ups exercise.
Lehman et al. found in 2008 that elevating the feet above the hands had a greater influence on scapulothoracic stabilizing musculature than placing the hands on a Swiss ball. This means that it’s more challenging for the shoulder girdle stabilizers to do push-ups with your feet elevated onto a bench – with your hands on the ground – than to perform push-ups with your hands on a Swiss ball and your feet on the ground.
But don’t dump the unstable equipment just yet. Lehman et al. also found in 2006 that as long as you kept the torso angle constant, it would be more effective to perform exercises such as Swiss ball and Bosu push-ups in comparison to bodyweight push-ups – provided you place the hands on the unstable piece of equipment rather than the feet.
Lou et al. (2001) showed that internal rotation of the hand position or full pronation of the forearm during push-ups led to greater posterior and varus forces on the elbow joints that could produce injurious shear forces. Considering this finding, it’s recommended that internally rotated hand positions should be avoided for optimal elbow health.
Sandhu et al. (2008) found that push-ups with the hands placed on a Swiss ball significantly increased triceps and pectoralis major activity compared to normal push-ups, but only during the eccentric phase.
Youdas et al (2010) found that depending on the hand position, the push up activated between 73-109% MVC of the triceps brachii, 95-105% MVC of the pectoralis major, 67-87% MVC of the serratus anterior, and 11-21% MVC of the posterior deltoid musculature. The researchers also found that the narrow base position was the most effective position for increasing triceps contribution, and that the Perfect Push up™ device did not enhance muscular recruitment.

Common Biomechanical Errors

Think performing a push-up should come as natural as peeing your name in the fresh fallen snow? Think again.

T-Set Up

The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!

First, when performing push-ups, people often set up with their hand position high and wide. If you took a snapshot from above as in an aerial view, their set up would look like the letter T. People do this to make the exercise easier.
Why is this position easier?

  • The alignment of the pec fibers is better suited to produce force from this position.
  • This position requires less muscle activation (as measured by EMG) in the pecs and the triceps.
  • Shoulder horizontal abduction flexibility is limited, so the structures limiting flexibility will contribute much needed passive force in the bottom position.


Second is caterpillaring, or allowing the hips to sag resulting in anterior pelvic tilting and lumbar hyperextension. Here’s why this occurs.

  • They lack the core strength to stabilize their lumbopelvic region and simply allow their core to gain stability by “hanging” on the structures that limit this motion – namely the hip flexors and lumbar vertebrae. Basically, the hip flexors lengthen and contribute passive tension, and the neural arches of the vertebrae get closer together (aka approximation). This places the posterior elements of the spine at risk.
  • People are stuck in anterior pelvic tilt due to tight hip flexors and erector spinae and don’t have the muscular strength in the rectus abdominis and gluteus maximus to override this tightness during the push-up.
  • By keeping the hips low and hinging at the lumbar spine, a lower percentage of bodyweight is being lifted since much of the body is hanging toward the floor, thereby making the exercise easier.
  • People aren’t strong in deeper ranges so they sag to “pretend” they’re going deeper since their hips will bottom out before their chest, creating the illusion that they’re using full ROM.

Stopping Short

Third, people cut the movement short and perform half-reps. Here’s typically why this occurs.

  • People lack end-range shoulder strength and stability.
  • The bottom position of the push-ups involves a higher percentage of bodyweight than the top position, which makes the bottom more difficult. This makes the push-up the opposite of “accommodating resistance” since the loading increases as the push-up is lowered to the ground.
  • People want to fool themselves into thinking that they’re in better shape than they really are. The ego can handle doing ten half-rep push-ups, but it’s tough for a typical person to admit that he or she isn’t in good enough shape to perform a single legitimate, full-range push-up.

PPT: To Tilt or Not to Tilt

The push-up naturally encourages anterior pelvic tilt (APT) and lumbar extension due to the posteroanterior forces on the body induced by gravity. Contraction of the rectus abdominis is required to prevent pelvic and lumbar deformation and keep the lumbopelvic region in neutral, but further contraction of the glutes and abs will take you into posterior pelvic tilt (PPT). Whether you should enter into PPT, and the optimal amount of PPT, is up for debate.
Most coaches would agree that doing push-ups in APT is unwise. As long as you can keep a neutral posture, then all is well. However, some coaches believe that the push-up should be performed with a maximal glute and lower ab contraction to facilitate a strong PPT.

The PPT push-ups have three distinct advantages over the traditional push-up.

  • Since it requires a strong gluteand lower ab contraction to create the tilt, it serves as a static glute activation exercise. This allows you to kill two birds with one stone by improving the neural drive to the glutes while working the upper body. Take it from the Glute Guy, everyone can benefit from some extra glute activation!
  • By shifting the pelvis forward with your glutes, you’re no longer “hanging” on your hip flexors and lumbar vertebrae for stability. This will now require a stronger abdominal contraction as now you’re using active muscles to keep you stable rather than passive muscles and ligaments. Theextra muscle force from the rectus abdominis and gluteus maximus makes it a more effective core exercise and makes the push-up a “total body exercise.”
  • Third, it”locks you in” so there’s really no chance of losingcore stability. In other words, you maintain a straight line from your shoulders to ankles while you perform push-ups. Now yourhips won’t begin to sag as the set ensues, which spares the posterior elements of the lumbar spine.

However, there’s one drawback of performing the PPT push-ups.

The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!

Pelvic positioning is linked to lumbar and thoracic spine positioning. Specifically, a PPT is associated with increased thoracic kyphosis. Performing push-ups with a hyperkyphotic curve will affect scapulohumeral rhythm and could increase the risk of impingement and rotator cuff issues. While this might not cause any problems initially, it might present problems down the road.
Now, it is important to take a step back and note that you don’t need a posterior pelvic tilt in your push-ups; . If you tend to produce an anterior pelvic tilt when you do push-ups, then encouraging PPT as you work on improving your push-ups is a great approach, but once you’re able to maintain a neutral pelvic alignment, you may wish to eliminate the posterior tilt focus. For this reason, our corrections and progressions will be shown using a PPT.

Sex Differences: Men versus Women

The Best Damn Push-Ups Article, Period!

Three different factors could explain why women struggle more with push-ups than men.
First, strength levels are different between men and women. When measured as a percentage of lean body mass, the differences are dramatically reduced, especially in the lower body. But upper body strength in men is greater than in women, and because upper body strength is a big part of a push-up (requiring moving around 66% of body weight), it’s not a simple task for beginners, especially beginner women.
Second, most women possess a higher proportion of lower body muscle mass relative to upper body muscle mass compared to men. If you want to see how this feels, put yourself in a plank position and have someone place some weight above your chest and see how much of an added challenge that is. Then try this again but have the weight placed above your pelvis. Your core will need to work much more to support the weight at your pelvis than at the chest. For this reason women could find the push-ups more challenging for the core.
Third, push-ups are considered the gold standard for strength in young males. Teenage boys likely attempt far more push-ups than teenage females. The “manliness” factor of push-ups provides an incentive for males to try harder and master the push-up.

The Path to Push-ups Proficiency

There are several corrections that can be implemented to assist with push-up performance.

  • No matter which type of push-up you’re performing, always set up in the “arrow formation.” Basically, this means that if you took a snapshot from the aerial view the push-ups position would look like an arrow, not the letter T. This position is easier on the shoulder joint and leads to higher EMG activation of the pecs and triceps.
  • Only perform variations that allow you to keep your core stable and prevent excessive anterior pelvic tilt and lumbar extension. In other words, regress the exercise to a variation you can do correctly and progress from there.
  • If you tend to produce an anterior pelvic tilt (APT) during your planks or push-ups, then focus on a posterior pelvic tilt.
  • Only perform variations that allow you to use a full range of motion. In other words, regress the exercise to a variation that you can do correctly and progress from there.
  • Perform corrective exercises and move up gradually through the progressions.

Push-ups Progressions

Despite the complex tone of this article, performing a push-up so perfect that it will make even the most anal retentive exercise physiologist’s heart skip a beat is a breeze.
From the list of push-up progressions below, find the one that you can do with proper form and do a set two-three times per day. Once you can complete a set of 10 with good form, move to the next progression.

Corrective Exercises to Assist in Proper Push-ups Performance

Progress not happening fast enough? Then do a couple of sets of these exercises two-three times per week and you’ll accelerate your push-ups performance progress.

Advanced Push-up Variations

Once you get the hang of proper push-up form you might find yourself quite smitten with the exercise. You’ll want it more, multiple times a day, different ways, different positions, in airplane lavatories after the captain turns off the seatbelt sign. You get the picture.
Fortunately there are many advanced progression options once quality regular push-ups have been achieved, starting with feet elevated push-ups, and moving to:

  • One-foot push-ups
  • One-arm push-ups
  • Diamond push-ups
  • Between bench increased range push-ups
  • Hindu push-ups (Judo push-ups)
  • Dive-bomber push-ups
  • Push-ups with rotation (T-push-ups)
  • Spiderman push-ups
  • Push-ups with hip extension
  • Tick tock push-ups
  • Corkscrew push-ups
  • Suspended push-ups (using TRX, blast straps, or rings)
  • Weighted plate push-ups
  • Weighted vest push-ups
  • Weighted chain push-ups
  • Band resisted push-ups
  • Clapping push-ups
  • Kneeling clapping push-ups
  • Bosu ball or stability ball push-ups
  • Stability ball push-ups with two balls
  • Alternating stability ball push-ups (walkovers)
  • Side-to-side push-ups
  • Triangle push-ups
  • Side-tap push-ups
  • Push-up iso-holds
  • One-arm one-leg push-ups
  • Alligator push-ups
  • Grasshopper push-ups (soccer push-ups)
  • Pike push-ups
  • Push-backs
  • Planche push-ups

Push-up Variations for Ballers

Here are some good video demonstrations for push-up variations:
These two are from Roger Lawson.

These two are from Martin Rooney.

Think You’re Too Strong for Push-ups? Think Again!

Nobody can ever be too strong for push-ups variations. Here’s Ben Bruno doing suspended push-ups with 185 lbs. of extra resistance; more than his own bodyweight!

Here’s Cem Eren doing explosive plyometric push-ups; you’ll see that he can spin 180 degrees while doing them!

And this is just insane. It’s some freak doing clapping planche push-ups, as if regular planche push-ups weren’t hard enough!


There are literally hundreds of exercises you can do in the gym to build a healthier, stronger body, but sometimes the basics are the best. Of course, we don’t expect you to dump your current strength training routine in favor of just performing push-up variations while you watch the dozen hospital shows you TiVo’d, but we do think it’s time to give the much-maligned push-up a second look.
At the very least, you should’ve picked up some cool factoids that will make you look really smart in front of your meathead friends. Just don’t let Mr. Hartmann catch you looking like a caterpillar when you do push-ups!


%d bloggers like this: